The Melbourne Femur Collection is a unique archive of human femoral bone tissue gathered from persons who died suddenly and unexpectedly without any major predisposing medical conditions or long periods of immobilisation.
The Melbourne Femur Research Collection (MFRC) was initiated in the early 1990s because of a need to answer a forensic problem.
Microscopic features in bone had been used for a number of decades up to that point, to estimate how old a person was at the time of their death. It is one of the important questions to answer about an unknown deceased person in order to find out who they were in life.
To improve the accuracy of this method, a team of researchers in Melbourne, under Professor John Clement, collected bone from deceased people of known age and sex. These bones were collected with full consent from the person’s next-of-kin and in accordance with National Health and Medical Research guidelines.
It was soon determined by the research team that to try to determine the age at death of a person using microscopic features found in their bone was not very accurate, and therefore not useful in order to discover someone’s identity: the estimates obtained using all available methods only gave a possible age range of more than ten years- not helpful if you’re trying to identify an individual.
The bone collection had grown to over 100 samples at this stage, and interest was growing in other questions on age-related changes in bone research questions that could be answered by these samples: how bone deteriorates mechanically, and how osteoporosis develops and progresses. This is a disease of ageing that is devastating for people who suffer age-related fractures and an increased risk of dying or permanent physical impairment.
Work continued on the collection, now with a focus on research in osteoporosis and other age changes, sex difference in the structure of bone, collage fibre orientation and mechanical behaviour of bone always mindful of the high degree of variation between individuals of the same chronological age.
Researchers from disciplines in medicine, anthropology and bio-engineering have all been able to advance their research because of the existence of this collection.
Today, there are over 600 bone samples and 1000’s of image files held in the collection. Over 80 peer-reviewed scientific papers have been published on research based on bone samples in the collection, and research is conducted in collaboration with the Melbourne team by over eight separate international research groups. One of the conditions of conducting research on bone or imaging data in the collection is that any new data is returned to the collection. This enhances the body of knowledge on the collection to benefit future researchers.
The MFRC is now a permanent collection of the Faculty of Medicine Dentistry and Health Sciences at The University of Melbourne. It is also now deemed a collection of national and international significance.
Consequently the MFRC research data now resides on a bank of government-funded Mediaflux servers (VicNode). Physical specimens are securely stored at the Melbourne Dental School (MDS) and access to the collection is overseen by a committee of management from MDHS.
The collection and all the knowledge gained from research conducted with it would not exist without the altruistic acts of the next-of-kin at a very difficult time. We owe it to the donors and their families to gain as much knowledge from the collection, for the benefit of all humankind.
Each year, the list of peer reviewed publications based on the MFRC grows in number. This demonstrates the rich body of knowledge created and developed as a direct result of the altruism of the next-of-kin and families.
The research conducted on the MFRC and with it the advancement of knowledge of human bone biology would not have been possible without the dedicated support of the Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine and its staff over the years.
As custodians of the MFRC, the committee of management has an ethical obligation to facilitate and conduct research with the MFRC for the benefit of the world’s population. All the research conducted in the publications listed below has been completed with the most stringent ethical oversight, and with the advancement of beneficial knowledge in mind.
Melbourne Femur Collection Publications
87. Wang X, Thomas CDL, Clement JG, Das R, Davies H, Fernandez JW. A mechanostatistical approach to cortical bone remodelling: an equine model BIOMECHANICS AND MODELING IN MECHANOBIOLOGY 15(1):29-42 01 Feb 2016 (Journal article) Author URL
86. Maggiano, IS, Maggiano, CM, Clement, JG, Thomas, CDL, Carter, Y and Cooper, DML. Three-dimensional reconstruction of Haversian systems in human cortical bone using synchrotron radiation-based micro-CT: morphology and quantification of branching and transverse connections across age. Journal of Anatomy, 228: 719–732 2016
85. Zhang J, Hislop-Jambrich J, Besier T. Predictive statistical models of baseline variations in 3-D femoral cortex morphology. Medical Engineering And Physics [serial online]. May 1, 2016;38:450-457.
84. Greenwood C, Clement JG, Dicken AJ, Evans JPO, Lyburn ID, Martin RM, Rogers KD, Stone N, Adams G, Zioupos P. The micro-architecture of human cancellous bone from fracture neck of femur patients in relation to the structural integrity and fracture toughness of the tissue Bone Reports 3:67-75 01 Dec 2015
83. Lerebours C, Thomas CDL, Clement JG, Buenzli PR, Pivonka P. The relationship between porosity and specific surface in human cortical bone is subject specific BONE 72:109-117 01 Mar 2015
82. Hennig C, Thomas CDL, Clement JG, Cooper DML. Does 3D orientation account for variation in osteon morphology assessed by 2D histology? JOURNAL OF ANATOMY 227(4):497-505 01 Oct 2015
81. Dicken AJ, Evans JPO, Rogers KD, Stone N, Greenwood C, Godber SX, Prokopiou D, Clement JG, Lyburn ID, Martin RM, et al. X-ray diffraction from bone employing annular and semi-annular beams PHYSICS IN MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY60(15):5803-5812 07 Aug 2015
80. Dicken AJ, Evans JPO, Rogers KD, Greenwood C, Godber SX, Prokopiou D, Stone N, Clement JG, Lyburn I, Martin RM, et al. Energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction using an annular beam OPTICS EXPRESS 23(10):13443-13454 18 May 2015
79. Lerebours C, Thomas CDL, Clement JG, Buenzli PR, Pivonka P. The relationship between porosity and specific surface in human cortical bone is subject specific (vol 72, pg 109, 2015) BONE 75:249-249 01 Jun 2015
78. Scheiner S, Pivonka P, Hellmich C. Poromicromechanics reveals that physiological bone strains induce osteocyte-stimulating lacunar pressure. Biomechanics And Modeling In Mechanobiology. 2015;(1):9.
77. Carter Y, Suchorab JL, Thomas CDL, Clement JG, Cooper DML. Normal variation in cortical osteocyte lacunar parameters in healthy young males Journal of Anatomy 225(3):328-336 2014
76. Johannesdottir F, Turmezei T, Poole K. Cortical Bone Assessed With Clinical Computed Tomography at the Proximal Femur. Journal Of Bone And Mineral Research. 2014;(4):771.
75. Fernandez J, Das R, Cleary P, Hunter P, Thomas C, Clement J. Using smooth particle hydrodynamics to investigate femoral cortical bone remodelling at the Haversian level. International Journal For Numerical Methods In Biomedical Engineering. January 2013;29(1):129-143.
74. Wang J, Zhou B, Parkinson I, Thomas CDL, Clement JG, Fazzalari N, Guo XE. Trabecular Plate Loss and Deteriorating Elastic Modulus of Femoral Trabecular Bone in Intertrochanteric Hip Fractures BONE RESEARCH 4:346-354 31 Dec 2013
73. Greenwood C, Rogers K, Beckett S, Clement J. Initial observations of dynamically heated bone Crystal Research and Technology 48(12):1073-1082 01 Dec 2013
72. Carter Y, Thomas CDL, Clement JG, Cooper DML. Femoral osteocyte lacunar density, volume and morphology in women across the lifespan JOURNAL OF STRUCTURAL BIOLOGY 183(3):519-526 01 Sep 2013
71. Carter Y, Suchorab JL, Thomas CD, Clement JG, Cooper DML. Intra-element variation in osteocyte lacunar density and morphology in healthy young male cortical bone Joint Annual Meeting of the ASPET/BPS at Experimental Biology (EB), Boston, MA, 20 Apr 2013 - 24 Apr 2013. FASEB JOURNAL. FEDERATION AMER SOC EXP BIOL. 27: 1 pages. 01 Apr 2013
70. Carter Y, Thomas CDL, Clement JG, Peele AG, Hannah K, Cooper DML. Variation in osteocyte lacunar morphology and density in the human femur - a synchrotron radiation micro-CT study Bone 52(1):126-132 01 Jan 2013
69. Carter Y, Thomas CDL, Clement JG, Peele AG, Hannah K, Cooper DML. Corrigendum to "Variation in osteocyte lacunar morphology and density in the human femur - a synchrotron radiation micro-CT study" [Bone 52 (2013) 126 - 132]
68. Tsaousis N, Gee A, Treece G, Poole K. Cortical thickness estimation of the proximal femur from multi-view dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) [8670-10]. Proceedings- Spie The International Society For Optical Engineering 2013.
67. Buenzli P, Thomas C, Clement J, Pivonka P. Endocortical bone loss in osteoporosis: the role of bone surface availability. International Journal For Numerical Methods In Biomedical Engineering. December 2013;29(12):1307-1322.
66. Poole K, Treece G, Gee A, et al. Cortical Thickness Mapping to Identify Focal Osteoporosis in Patients with Hip Fracture. Plos ONE. June 2012;7(6):1-7
65. Greenwood C, Rogers K, Beckett S, Clement J. Bone mineral crystallisation kinetics JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE-MATERIALS IN MEDICINE 23(9):2055-2060 01 Sep 2012
64. Fernandez JW, Hunter PJ, Das R, Cleary PW, Thomas CDL, Clement JG. Using smooth particle hydrodynamics to investigate femoral cortical bone remodelling at the Haversian level International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering 2012
63. Treece G, Poole K, Gee A. Imaging the femoral cortex: Thickness, density and mass from clinical CT. Medical Image Analysis [serial online]. July 1, 2012;16:952-965.
62. Cooper D, Thomas CD, Clement JG. Technological Developments in the Analysis of Cortical Bone Histology: The Third Dimension and Its Potential in Anthropology In Bone Histology: An Anthropological Perspective. 1: 361-375. Taylor & Francis Ltd, US (Boca Raton) 2011
61. Thomas CDT, Clement JGC. The Melbourne femur collection: How a forensic and anthropological collection came to have broader applications In Bone Histology: An Anthropological Perspective. 1: 327-339. Taylor & Francis Ltd, US (Boca Raton) 2011
60. Arhatari B, Cooper DML, Thomas CD, Clement JG, Peele AG. Imaging the 3D structure of secondary osteons in human cortical bone using phase-retrieval tomography Physics in Medicine and Biology 56:5265-5274 2011
59. Beckett S, Rogers K, Clement J. Inter-Species Variation in Bone Mineral Behavior upon Heating Journal of Forensic Sciences 56(3):571-579 2011
58. Donaldson F, Pankaj P, Cooper D, Thomas CD, Clement J, Simpson A. Relating age and micro-architecture with apparent-level elastic constants: a micro-finite element study of female cortical bone from the anterior femoral midshaft Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine 225(H6):585-596 2011
57. Cooper D, Erickson B, Peele A, Hannah K, Thomas CD, Clement JG. Visualization of 3D osteon morphology by synchrotron radiation micro-CT Journal of Anatomy 219:481-489 2011
56. Fernandez JW, Das R, Thomas CDL, Cleary PW, Sinnott MD, Clement J. Strain reduction between cortical pore structures leads to bone weakening and fracture susceptibility: An investigation using smooth particle hydrodynamics IFMBE Proceedings. 31 IFMBE: 784-787. 22 Oct 2010
55. Myers G, Thomas CDT, Paganin D, Gureyev T, Clement JGC. A general few-projection method for tomographic reconstruction of samples consisting of several distinct materials Applied Physics Letters 96(2):21105-1-21105-3 2010
54. Hannah KM, THOMAS C, CLEMENT J, DeCarlo F, Peele AG. Bimodal distribution of osteocyte lacunar size in the human femoral cortex as revealed by micro-CT Bone 47:866-871
53. Rogers K, Beckett S, Kuhn S, Chamberlain A, Clement JGC. Contrasting the crystallinity indicators of heated and diagenetically altered bone mineral Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeocology 296:125-129 2010
52. Peele AG, Thomas CDL, Clement JG, Arhatari BD, Hannah KM, Doshi C, Putkunz CT, Clark JN. High Resolution X-ray phase tomography DEVELOPMENTS IN X-RAY TOMOGRAPHY VII 7804:6 pages Article number ARTN 780403 01 Jan 2010
51. Treece G, Gee A, Mayhew P, Poole K. High resolution cortical bone thickness measurement from clinical CT data. Medical Image Analysis. January 1, 2010;14:276-290.
50. Bromage T, Lacruz R, Boyde A, et al. Lamellar bone is an incremental tissue reconciling enamel rhythms, body size, and organismal life history. Calcified Tissue International. May 2009;84(5):388-404.
49. Hislop-Jambrich JL, Thomas CDL, Briggs CA, Blau S, Hall CJ, Clement JG. The MDCT evaluation of human femoral bones symmetry in aging, using QCT and anthropological measurements: A cross-sectional mortuary based study 2nd Joint Meeting of the International-Bone-and-Mineral-Society/Australian-New-Zealand-Bone-and-Mineral-Society, Sydney, AUSTRALIA, 21 Mar 2009 - 25 Mar 2009. BONE. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 44: S107-S107. 01 May 2009
48. Croker, CLEMENT J, Donlon. A comparison of cortical bone thickness in the femoral midshaft of humans and two non-human mammals Homo: Journal of comparative human biology 60:551-565 2009
47. THOMAS C, Mayhew P, Power J, Poole K, Loveridge N, CLEMENT J, Burgoyne C, Reeve J. Femoral Neck Trabecular Bone: Loss With Aging and Role in Preventing Fracture Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 24:1808-1818 2009
46. Goldman HM, McFarlin SC, Cooper DML, THOMAS C, CLEMENT J. Ontogenetic patterning of cortical bone microstructure and geometry at the human mid-shaft femur The Anatomical Record 292:48-64 2009
45. Britz HM, Thomas C, Clement J, Cooper DML. The relation of human femoral osteon geometry to age, sex, height and weight Bone 45:77-83 2009
44. Cooper DML, Clement JG, Thomas CDL, Hallgrimsson B, Turinsky AL, Sensen CW, Goldman HM. Advances in high resolution imaging and the emerging application of 3D cortical bone histomorphometry in interpreting health. 77th Annual Meeting of the American-Association-of-Physical-Anthropologists, Columbus, OH, 09 Apr 2008 - 12 Apr 2008. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY. WILEY-LISS. 81-81. 01 Jan 2008
43. Goulet GC, Coope DML, Coombe D, Thomas DL, Clement JG, Zernicke RF. Lacunocanalicular fluid flow and regulation of Basic Multicellular Unit activity. 29th Annual Meeting of the American-Society-for-Bone-and-Mineral-Research, Honolulu, HI, 16 Sep 2007 - 19 Sep 2007. JOURNAL OF BONE AND MINERAL RESEARCH. AMER SOC BONE & MINERAL RES. 22: S147-S147. 01 Sep 2007
42. Cooper DML, THOMAS C, CLEMENT J, Turinsky AL, SENSEN CW, Hallgrimsson B. Age-dependent change in the 3D structure of cortical porosity at the human femoral midshaft Bone 40(4):957-965 2007
41. Hedges REM, CLEMENT J, THOMAS C, O'Connell TC. Collagen turnover in the adult femoral mid-shaft: modeled from anthropogenic radiocarbon tracer measurements American Journal of Physical Anthropology 133(2):808-816 2007
40. Reeve J, Thomas CD, Mayhew PM, Loveridge N, Clement JG, Burgoyne CJ. Femoral neck trabecular bone and its effect on fracture prevention. 28th Annual Meeting of the American-Society-for-Bone-and-Mineral-Research, Philadelphia, PA, 15 Sep 2006 - 19 Sep 2006. JOURNAL OF BONE AND MINERAL RESEARCH. AMER SOC BONE & MINERAL RES. 21: S409-S409. 01 Sep 2006
39. Thomas D, Clement J, Reeve J, Loveridge N. Remodelling clusters reduce local bone strain and favour canal merging Annual Meeting of the Bone-Research-Society, Southampton, ENGLAND, 05 Jul 2006 - 06 Jul 2006. JOURNAL OF BONE AND MINERAL RESEARCH. AMER SOC BONE & MINERAL RES. 21: 1152-1152. 01 Jul 2006
38. Ibrahim S, Brown K, D Thomas C, Mayhew PM, Loveridge N, Clement JG, Poole K, Reeve J. Validation of cortical thickness estimates in the femur made with whole body computed tomography (QCT) and mindways software: Comparison with high resolution PQCT Annual Meeting of the Bone-Research-Society, Southampton, ENGLAND, 05 Jul 2006 - 06 Jul 2006. JOURNAL OF BONE AND MINERAL RESEARCH. AMER SOC BONE & MINERAL RES. 21: 1161-1161. 01 Jul 2006
37. Williams JF, Thomas CDL, Clement JG, Bruns R. The influence of the tensor fasciae latae on the loading of the femoral mid-shaft Proceedings of the Fourth IASTED International Conference on Biomechanics, BioMech 2006. 1-6. 01 Dec 2006
36. Thomas C, Feik S, Clement J. Increase in pore area, and not pore density, is the main determinant in the development of porosity in human cortical bone Journal of Anatomy 209(2):219-230 2006
35. Cooper DML, Thomas C, Clement J, Hallgrimsson B. Three-Dimensional Microcomputed Tomography Imaging of Basic Multicellular Unit-Related Resorption Spaces in Human Cortical Bone Anatomical Record 288A (7):806-816 2006
34. JG Clement. The Melbourne Femur Collection: the gift of tissue underpins important medical and forensic research - VIFM Review, 2005
33. Goldman HM, George BP, Thomas CDL, Clement JG. Mineralization and bone turnover at the human femoral mid-shaft. 27th Annual Meeting of the American-Society-for-Bone-and-Mineral-Research, Nashville, TN, 23 Sep 2005 - 27 Sep 2005. JOURNAL OF BONE AND MINERAL RESEARCH. AMER SOC BONE & MINERAL RES. 20: S114-S114. 01 Sep 2005
32. Cooper DML, Thomas CDL, Clement JG, Hallgrimsson B. The role of age and body size in predicting the 3D structure of cortical porosity at the human anterior femoral mid-shaft. 27th Annual Meeting of the American-Society-for-Bone-and-Mineral-Research, Nashville, TN, 23 Sep 2005 - 27 Sep 2005. JOURNAL OF BONE AND MINERAL RESEARCH. AMER SOC BONE & MINERAL RES. 20: S193-S193. 01 Sep 2005
31. THOMAS CDL, FEIK SA, CLEMENT JG. Regional variation of intracortical porosity in the midshaft of the human femur: age and sex differences Journal of Anatomy 206(2):115-125 2005
30. Mayhew P, Thomas CDL, Clement JG, Loveridge N, Beck T, Bonfield W, Burgoyne CJ,
29. Reeve J. Relation between age, femoral neck cortical stability, and hip fracture risk The Lancet 366(9480):129-135 2005
28. Goldman HM, Thomas CDL, Clement JG, Bromage TG. Relationships among microstructural properties of bone at the human midshaft femur Journal of Anatomy 206(2):127-139 2005
27. Cooper DML, Clement JG, Thomas CDL, Hallgrimsson B. 3D volumetric analysis of age-related change in cortical porosity at the human anterior femoral mid-shaft. 26th Annual Meeting of the American-Society-for-Bone-and-Mineral-Research, Seattle, WA, 01 Oct 2004 - 05 Oct 2004. JOURNAL OF BONE AND MINERAL RESEARCH. AMER SOC BONE & MINERAL RES. 19: S206-S206. 01 Oct 2004
26. Mayhew P, Thomas D, Clement J, Loveridge N, Bonfield W, Beck T, Reeve J. Walking tall is poor long-term protection against hip fracture. 26th Annual Meeting of the American-Society-for-Bone-and-Mineral-Research, Seattle, WA, 01 Oct 2004 - 05 Oct 2004. JOURNAL OF BONE AND MINERAL RESEARCH. AMER SOC BONE & MINERAL RES. 19: S206-S206. 01 Oct 2004
25. Mayhew PM, Thomas CDL, Loveridge N, Clement J, Reeve J. Mid femoral neck cortical morphology changes with age Annual Meeting of the Bone-and-Tooth-Society, Oxford, ENGLAND, 29 Jun 2004 - 30 Jun 2004. JOURNAL OF BONE AND MINERAL RESEARCH. AMER SOC BONE & MINERAL RES. 19: 1031-1031. 01 Jun 2004
24. Goldman HM, Bromage TG, Thomas CDL, Clement JG. Preferred collagen fiber orientation iin the human mid-shaft femur ANATOMICAL RECORD PART A-DISCOVERIES IN MOLECULAR CELLULAR AND EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY272A(1):434-445 01 May 2003
23. GOLDMAN HM, BROMAGE TG, BOYDE A, THOMAS CDL, CLEMENT JG. Intrapopulation variability in mineralization density at the human femoral mid-shaft Journal of Anatomy 203(2):243-255 2003
22. Goldman HM, Bromage TG, Clement JG, Thomas C. Relationship between collagen fiber orientation, age and mechanical adaptation of the human mid-shaft femur. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 77-77 01 Jan 2002
21. Loveridge N, Bell KL, Reeve J, Thomas CDL, Feik SA, Clement JG. Cortical porosity and its relationship to remodelling clusters (super-osteons) JOURNAL OF BONE AND MINERAL RESEARCH 16(6):1177-1177 01 Jun 2001
20. Bell KL, Loveridge N, Reeve J, Thomas CDL, Feik SA, Clement JG. Super-osteons (remodeling clusters) in the cortex of the femoral shaft: influence of age and gender. Anatomical Record 264:378-386 2001
19. Goldman HM, Clement JG, Thomas CDL, Bromage TG. Variability in mineralization density and collagen fiber orientation of the human mid-shaft femur Scanning 23(2):73-74 01 Dec 2001
18. Goldman HM, Blayvas A, Boyde A, Howell PGT, Clement JG, Bromage TG. Correlative light and backscattered electron microscopy of bone - Part II: Automated image analysis SCANNING 22(6):337-344 01 Nov 2000
17. Bell KL, Loveridge N, Reeve J, Thomas D, Feik S, Clement J. Cortical remodelling clusters (super-osteons) in the human femoral shaft. JOURNAL OF BONE AND MINERAL RESEARCH 15:S237-S237 01 Sep 2000
16. Feik SA, Thomas CDL, Bruns R, Clement JG. Regional variations in cortical modeling in the femoral mid-shaft: Sex and age differences American Journal of Physical Anthropology 112(2):191-205 01 Jun 2000
15. Feik S, Thomas D, Bruns R, Clement JG. Automated analysis of regional differences in femoral modelling across age. JOURNAL OF DENTAL RESEARCH 79(5):1049-1049 01 May 2000
14. Thomas CDL, Stein MS, Feik SA, Wark JD, Clement JG. Determination of age at death using combined morphology and histology of the femur JOURNAL OF ANATOMY 196:463-471 01 Apr 2000
13. Liu ZQ, Liew HL, Clement JG, Thomas CDL. Bone image segmentation IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING 46(5):565-573 01 May 1999
12. Stein MS, Feik SA, Thomas CDL, Clement JG, Wark JD. An automated analysis of intracortical porosity in human femoral bone across age JOURNAL OF BONE AND MINERAL RESEARCH 14(4):624-632 01 Apr 1999
11. Goldman HM, Bromage TG, Bruns R, Clement JG, Thomas CDL, Feik S. Preferred collagen fiber orientation in the human mid-shaft femur. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 136-137 01 Jan 1999
10. Stein MS, Thomas CDL, Feik SA, Wark JD, Clement JG. Bone size and mechanics at the femoral diaphysis across age and sex JOURNAL OF BIOMECHANICS 31(12):1101-1110 01 Dec 1998
9. Feik SA, Thomas CDL, Clement JG. Age-related changes in cortical porosity of the midshaft of the human femur JOURNAL OF ANATOMY 191:407-416 01 Oct 1997
8. Feik SA, Thomas CDL, Clement JG. Age and gender differences in cortical bone porosity. JOURNAL OF DENTAL RESEARCH 76(5):937-937 01 May 1997
7. Feik SA, Thomas CDL, Clement JG. Age trends in remodeling of the femoral midshaft differ between the sexes JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC RESEARCH 14(4):590-597 01 Jul 1996
6. Liu ZQ, Austin T, Thomas CDL, Clement JG. Bone feature analysis using image processing techniques COMPUTERS IN BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE 26(1):65-76 01 Jan 1996
5. Holden JL, Clement JG, Phakey PP. Age and temperature-related changes to the ultrastructure and composition of human bone-mineral. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 10(9):1400-1409 01 Sep 1995
4. Bertelsen PK, Clement JG, Thomas CDL. A morphometric study of the cortex of the human femur from early childhood to advanced old age. Forensic Science International 74(1-2):63-77 30 Jun 1995
3. Holden JL, Phakey PP, Clement JG. Scanning electron microscope observations of heat-treated human bone. Forensic Science International 74(1-2):29-45 30 Jun 1995
2. Holden JL, Phakey PP, Clement JG. Scanning electron microscope observations of incinerated human femoral bone- a case study. Forensic Science International 74(1-2):17-28 30 Jun 1995
1. Lui ZQ, Austin T, Thomas CDL, Clement JG. Human femoral bone analysis 3rd International Conference on Computer Simulations in Biomedicine (Biomed 95), Southampton, England, 21 Jun 1995 - 23 Jun 1995. Proceedings Editors: Power H, Hart RT. Computer simulations in biomedicine, Computational mechanics publications Ltd. 487-494. 01 Jan 1995
Guidelines for researchers wishing to access existing MFRC research data or who may request access to, or loan of, biological material.
First contact should be made with Dr Rita Hardiman, curator of the archive, clearly stating the nature of your enquiry.
Unless you are already known to members of our committee of management you may then be requested to provide references to reassure us that you are a bona fide scholar with legitimate reasons to request access.
Inevitably each request will have to be considered on its merits balancing the likely benefits of the study against any degradation of the material in the collection and the implications for any further research into the future. It follows that after initial correspondence has clarified any request the committee of management would require details of any proposed study (such as study methodology and an outline of the research question). Such information would of course be treated with the utmost confidence while a decision is made whether or not the MFRC can support the request. Should a request for access be denied then the details of the request provided will be destroyed to guarantee privacy.
If the CoM of the MFRC agree to support the proposal then discussion about prevailing ethical arrangements for any proposed study, logistical arrangements, security of data and material and cost recovery implications would need to be discussed to confirm the feasibility of the collaborative arrangements.
Thus far it has been the practice of the MFRC team led by Prof John Clement, who initiated the collection, that research data gained from studies of the material be provided back to the MFRC so the database is augmented by each successive study for the benefit of any future collaborators.
Whilst the transfer of large digital data files is becoming easier the transfer of biological material remains more problematic. Documentation will be provided to reassure any customs or quarantine official that the material has been collected ethically and has been screened or treated to ensure that it poses no risk to human health. Materials should never be entrusted to the postal service but must be carried either as personal hand luggage or conveyed by a carrier with expertise in the tracked transfer of biological material. The whereabouts of every sample must be known at all times and samples/containers must always be labelled with their MFRC catalogue number. Material is only ever provided on the basis of a loan for an agreed period of study. Costs for safe transport of material to and from the MFRC will always be the responsibility of the borrower.